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CMR Convention

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  The CMR convention on the contract for the International carriage of the Goods  by Road ( CMR ) adopted in 1956 governs International Transport of goods by road . Under this convention the carrier is responsible for the act and omissions of his agents and servants and other persons  whose services he makes use of . He is liable loss of or damage to the goods occurring between the time when he takes over the goods and the time of delivery as well as for any delay in delivery . He shall however be relieved of such liability if the loss damage or delay was caused by any wrongful act on neglect of the consignor , the inherent vice of the goods or through circumstances which the carrier could not avoid and the consequence of which he was unable to prevent .  In other way we can understand as The CMR Convention (full title Convention on the Contract for the International Carriage of Goods by Road ) is a United Nations convention that was signed in Geneva on 19 May 1956. It relates

TIR Convention

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  TIR has its origin in an agreement drawn up in 1949 under the aegis of the Economic Commission of Europe between a small number of European countries . The success of this limited scheme led to the negotiation of the TIR Convention , 1959 . It was fully revised in 1975 to take account of practical experience in operating the system and to give effect to technical advances and changed requirements . Although the system has evolved , the essential characteristics remain the same . The Convention on International Transport of Goods Under Cover of TIR Carnets ( TIR Convention ) is a multilateral treaty that was concluded at Geneva on 14 November 1975 to simplify and harmonise the administrative formalities of international road transport. (TIR stands for "Transports Internationaux Routiers" or "International Road Transports".) The convention was adopted under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). As of May 2013, there

Air Transport Geography

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  A knowledge of geographical areas connected with air transport including countries , major commercial centers and cities code is essential for the efficient handling of the air cargo . IATA airlines have found it convenient to divide the world into three Traffic Commercial Areas taking into account differing economic , social and business conditions and practices preventing in different parts of the world . These area are known as TC1  , TC2  , TC3  and comprise the following  territories . 1)     IATA Traffic Conference Area 1  (TC1)                   North America                   Central America                   South  America                   Green Land                   Bermuda and The Hawaiian Island 2)     IATA Traffic Conference  Area 2  (TC2)                   Europe including the erstwhile Russia as far as the Urals                   Iceland                   The Azores                   Africa and adjacent Island                   The Middle East i

Decision Areas for Transporters

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The Important objectives if a carrier are to manage its operations effectively and efficiently , and to provide better consumer services . The important areas that require management's attention can be summarized as pricing and negotiations , routing and scheduling , service offering  ( including fleet mixed) , amidst a scenario of competition and required marketing activities .    For this these are the decision areas for Transporters . 1) Pricing and Negotiation :-  Pricing of transportation services could be mainly cost - based or based on the value provided to the customer and the customer's ability to pay ( as in the case of private trucking operators)  . In any case , a knowledge of cost involved in providing the service is essential .    There are several useful ways of looking  at costs associated with transportation operations . One way is to separate the total costs into the following components . a)   Direct Costs : b)  Indirect Costs : Another useful way

Convention on Transit Trade of Land - Locked State .

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The convention on Transit Trade of Land - Locked Countries embodies the principle of the freedom of the high seas for countries whose geographic situation provides them with no direct access to sea   , i.e. they have no coastline .  The Convention on they high sea states that the high seas are open to all nations , and no state make any part of them subject to sovereignty . In order to enjoy the freedom of sea on equal terms with coastal states , states having no sea coast should have free access to the sea . States situated between the sea and a land - locked state should allow it free transit through their territory ,, and should allow ships to the land - locked country treatment equal to that of their own ship regarding access and use of sea port .   Goods in transit should not be subject to duty , but charges may be levied to  cover the expanses of  supervision and administration entente by  transit . The means of transport used for transit includes railway stock , sea - going

Quality of Service vs Mode of Transport

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There are different aspects of the quality of transport service , which can not be readily evaluated . The value a shipper will ascribe to a particular quality will largely depend on his/her individual situation but certain transport quality  do play important role in deciding the shipper's choice of the mode of transport for a particular leg of the journey . Such qualities can be generalized as follows : 1) Speed 2) Door to door capability 3) Reliability 4) Security 5) Flexibility 6) Safety  7)Availability In today's world , time is considered as money and therefore speed is the most important factor in the determination of the mode of transport . In the international trade scenario , guaranteed transit time is the order of the day and there is cut throat competition among the shipping lines to reduce the transit time  . In Multi - Model Transportation the time taken in inland movement is also equally important and the speed with which these modes are serving the

Logistics Costs

The Cost Structure show a striking uniformity . Logistics adds value , the basic assumption beaning that trade offs exits within the system and surface when conscious attempts are made of optimize the system . Trade off are therefore central to logistics and provide the raison d'etre for total distribution cost approach with characterizes modern Logistics  Management . Logistics Cost would ordinary include items such as :- 1) Packaging 2) Mateial Transfer 3) Marking the Trade offs of goods identifiers 4) Stacking/Unstacking 5) Storage/Warehousing 6) Consolidation/De-consolidation 7) Transport activities all modes 8) Time value for investments in goods in the Logistics System including the added value of  Transportation ,    Storage and Handling . 9)  Physical  form changes required for effective and/or safe Transport , Storage and Handling . 10) Marking , identification , recording , analysis , data transfer and handling . 11) Electronic data integration . 12) Logi