Showing posts with label warehouse. Show all posts
Showing posts with label warehouse. Show all posts

Monday, 18 June 2018

Careers in Logistics

A webinar was organized by us on YouTube Live. In this webinar we will discuss about different careers in the field of Logistics and also discuss about how it is easy to become an independent logistics professionals. How the short skill development courses of Join Study will help you.
You already know that people are always trying to join IT, Software and other Engineering sectors they also thinking for Product and marketing Management fields. But what are the great chances for career growth in Logistics sector is discussed here in this webinar. Here is a complete video of this webinar for our blog readers and public.

Wednesday, 21 March 2018

Packing principles relating to cargo in containers

Packaging is an important part for logistics. It is a big topic for study about the packing principles relating to cargo in containers. in this topic we will discuss about all important packing principles regarding this. Principles regarding stowing of all cargo into the containers is also plays an important role in logistics performance. It is important to know that how to restrain the cargo and also about the shorting, lashing, wedging and locking. Below is the slide shows, In this slide shows you will all the related discussion in details. this slide sows provide you a better concept regarding the packing principles relating to cargo in containers. Please see the slide shows below.

Friday, 3 November 2017

Assignments on Documentation and Liabilities

Social medias are full of unnecessary discussion and thoughts. Every people on the social medias are claiming their ability fake but some of them are true also. Blog is original image of public qualities and their abilities.
So I am posting here an assignments for all Logistics Professionals, students and teachers. Please solve these question which are very important to check your abilities.

Sunday, 1 October 2017

Importance of Trade Volume for planning a Dry Port

Dry ports depends essentially on the external trade traffic of the countries in which they are setup.While planning a dry port, therefore the first consideration would be the trade volumes, both inwards and outwards means imports and exports both. once these are decided, detailed breakdown of import and export volumes in every terms would be most useful parameters to outline the necessary facilities that need to be provide in terms of terminal handling, storage and transport.the next step is that panning team have to determine the commodity and its volume that may move from the dry port. during the course of survey it was found that most governments of land-locked countries bring out annual statistics of external trade in terms of commodities and values.The common problem encounter is the paucity of current data regarding the every aspects of commodities trade which could help establish the requirements of transport, handling and storage at the dry port.

It was learnt that basic document used for these statistics is the custom.
declaration failed at the border or at the check point and this contained the
information on the weight of consignment. There is no other practical difficulties in compiling the
weight of commodities imported and exported.
As in all developing countries, the pattern of trade in the land-locked countries consists
predominantly of exports of primary commodities and semi manufactured goods and import of
finished products.
The important fact to consider will be the separate requirements of commodities and their volumes
both for imports and exports that have to be catered for at the dry port. The facilities and their size
would have to be determined accordingly.

Thursday, 21 September 2017

Models in Logistics Management

Various quantitative models from the Operation Research Literature can be used to address the decision areas in Logistics.
Location models:- These models help in planning the optimal location of plant or warehouses, considering the inbound and outbound transportation costs and infrastructure cost at the locations. 
  • Allocation models:- These models help in optimally allocating commodities from sources to destinations in a multiple sources, multi destination environment. The costs consider for optimization are the production cost, transportation cost and warehousing.
  • Distribution network design models:- These models are usually comprehensive in nature deciding between a two, three or even four stage distribution network, location of warehouses and break bulk points and sometimes even the transport mode choice.
  • Inventory models:- Inventory models play a key role in Logistics Management. The inventories that are directly affected due to outbound logistics are 
  1. Finished Goods Inventory
  2. Pipeline Inventory
  3. Warehousing Inventory
  4. Retail Inventory
The typical cost trade-offs between inventory and other decisions in Logistics would be
  1. Inventory vs Transportation Costs
  2. Inventory vs Stock out Costs
  3. Inventory vs Spoilage and Materials Handling Costs
  • Routing models:- These models allow optimal routing on a transportation network from a given source to a destination. The simplest model is scales the Shortest Path Problem.
If you want to do more discussion about this topic the join our Online Classes of Logistics Management. Classes are clearly distributed as per the need of your's. You are welcome to enjoy Assignments, Workshop, Lessons and Forums are free of cost. You have to pay only for our one to one or group Online Tuition Classroom if you wish to join.

Tuesday, 22 July 2014

Size of Container Yard

It will depend upon the optimum number of containers to be store at any given time which is a function of the dwell time (DT) of containers which are separate for imports, exports and empty containers. Normally seven days for import, three days for export and 15 days for empties is considered pragmetic.

Imports = 6400 TEUs/annum or 18 per day.
At 7 days DT for each, the average inventory will be :
   18*7=126 TEUs
exports = 1600 TEU/annum or 5 TUs/day
at 3 days DT for each, average inventory will be
   5*3=15 TEUs
empties = 4800 TEUs/annum or 14 TEUs/day
at 15 days DT, average inventory will be :
   14*15 or 210 TEUs
Daily total average inventory = 126+15+210=351

The total storage capacity of CY should in the case be 351 of which the ground slot will be a fraction of the stake height. While equipment available may be capable to stake five high, full capacity can not be used for operating consideration as containers have to be shuffled for access and if the stake is full, shuffling and access become very difficult. Average staking height should therefore, be taken at 2.5. At this, the reqirement of ground slot will be
    351/2.5=140 .

Saturday, 15 March 2014

Decision Areas In Warehousing


There are two important decisions in Warehousing. Which are as follows :-

A)  Warehousing Location : The following factors influence the location of a warehouse:-

------  Transport facilities available.

------  Transportation cost of serving the market area.

------  Transportation cost of supply to the warehouse.

-----  Product price, customers' expected level of service and the resulting inventory carrying costs.

-----  Exise duties and other taxes assesed in the area.

-----  Labour supply and costs.

-----  Land and construction cost.

-----  Availability of power, water and communication.

-----  Climatic conditions.

-----  Attitude of residents and government towards the establishment of the warehouse.

-----  Potential for future expansion.

-----  Location of warehouse of competitors.

B)  Own versus lease versus use Public Warehouse :-

A warehouse may be privatly used or publically used . If a company makes goods and these are stored exclusively in some warehouse, then such warehouse known as Private warehouse.

A private warehouse may an owned or leased one .

If a warehouse is used on the basis of some terms and conditions by many users, then that warehouse is known as Public warehouse.

Wednesday, 26 February 2014

Partial Shipments and Drawings


-----   Partial drawings and/o shipments are allowed , unless the credit stipulated otherwise .

-----  Shipments by sea , or by more then one mode of transport but including carriage by sea , made on the same vessel and for the same voyage , will not be regarded as partial shipments , even if the transport documents indicating loading on board bear different dates of issuance and/or  indicate different ports of loading on board .

-----   Shipment made by post will not be regarded as partial shipment if the post receipts or certificates of posting appear to have been stamped or otherwise authenticated in the place from which the credit stipulates the goods are to be dispatched , and on the same date .

-----   Shipments made by modes of transport other than those referred to in the above paragraph of this article will not be regarded as partial shipments , provided the transport documents are issued by one and the same carrier or his agent and indicate the same date of issuance , the same place of dispatch or taking in charge of the goods , and the same destination .

-----   If drawings and/or shipment by installments within given periods are stipulated in the credit and any installment  is not drawn and/or shipped with in the period allowed for that installment , credit ceases to be available for that and any subsequent installments , unless otherwise stipulated in the credit .

Saturday, 8 February 2014

FEDAI Rules and U. N. Convention


Limitation of Action:- 

 Under the CTD rules of India , the CTO shall be discharged of all liabilities unless claim is lodged within nine months after ;

1)  -----  The delivery of Goods .

2)  -----  The date when the goods should have been delivered  .

3)  -----  The date when in accordance with conditions of contract failure or deliver the goods would in the absence of evidence to the contrary give the party entitled to receive delivery , the right to treat the goods as lost .

As against these provisions Article 25 of the U.N. Convention lays down the time limit of two years of institute the judicial or arbitral proceedings   against the MTO with a provision that a notice of claim is to be lodged in writing within six months of delivery of goods or stipulated period of such delivery .

The limitation period commences on the date of delivery of goods or the expiry of the last day on which the goods should have been delivered . Thus in cases of delay as well as loss or damage the provisions regarding limitation of action is more precious and specific under U. N. Convention .

The U. N. Convention on other hand does not make any distinction between the loss resulting from loss of or damage to the consignment and the loss resulting from the delay in delivery except that the liability for loss due to delay would be limited to two and half times the amount of freight payable for the goods delayed and not exceeding the total freight payable under the Multimodal Transport Contract .

Tuesday, 4 February 2014

Classification of Logistics Applications


While examining and evaluating alternatives in Logistics Management , classifying the application on various dimensions would help clarity the issue and focus attention . As indicated earlier , logistics application can be classified in terms of issues and actors . Other imported classifications based on various dimensions are :- 

a)  ---  Inbound Logistics and Outbound Logistics :  Most organization have to manage their outbound logistics  (i.e. physical distribution of their products to the customers from the factory) where as inbound logistics concerns itself with the purchasing function . The logistics of purchased product is generally managed by suppliers .  An obvious advantage of managing both inbound and outbound logistics is the possible cost saving when the two movements are coordinated  .

b)  ---  Private vs Public Sector :  The nature of ownership of the organization influences the objectives of organization and hence management of logistics . The choice of modes , transport contracting , response to socially oriented regulations , location choices , etc . would be on different conditions .

c)  ---   Single vs Multiple Plans :  Certain decisions like allocation decisions , coordination in production planning across plants , product wise specialization of plants etc . would be issues of significance in the multi - plant  situation .

d)  ---   Nature of the Product :  There could be various sub - dimensions here like bulk vs packaged products , perishable vs non - perishable products , durable vs non durable products , single vs multiple products and industrial vs consumer products .  handling of bulk products is quite different from handling packaged products . An organization making multiple products has more problems in coordinating its production planning , inventories and transportation then an organization making a single product .

e)  ---   Mode to Stoke vs Mode to Order :  The inventory , transportation and distribution network related decisions are more significant for an organization in which the products are made to stoke rather then made to order .

Sunday, 26 January 2014

Defenses For Carriage By Sea Or Inland Waterways


Defenses For Carriage By Sea Or Inland Waterways 

Notwithstanding the provisions of Basis of Liabilities of the MTO , The Multimodal Transport Operator shall not be  responsible for loss or delay in delivery with respect to goods carried by Sea or Inland Waterways , when such loss , damage or delay during such carriage has been caused by :

-----     Act , neglect or default of the master , mariner , pilot or the servants of the carrier in the navigation or  in the management of the Ship .

-----     Fire , unless caused by actual fault or privity of the carrier .

However , always provided that whenever loss or damage has resulted from unseaworthiness of the ship , the MTO can prove that due diligence has been exercised to make the ship seaworthy at the commencement of the voyage .

Conversion of delay into final loss   :-

If the goods have not been delivered within 90 consecutive days following the date of delivery determined according to Rule as Delay in Delivery , the claimant may in the absence of evidence of the contrary, treat the goods as lost .

But If this loss or damage has been occur during the transit of goods by Sea or Inland waterways then the situation will be changed and MTO is not treated as responsible for this loss or damage .

Friday, 24 January 2014

Inventory and Warehouse



Inventory plays a key role in Logistics Management . The inventories that are directly affected due to outbound logistics are ;_

-----     Finished goods inventory

-----     Pipeline inventory (Primary Transaction)

-----     Warehousing inventory

-----     Pipeline inventory (Secondary Transaction)

-----     Retail inventory

The typical cost trade - offs between inventory an others decisions in Logistics would be :-

-----     Inventory vs Transportation costs

-----     Inventory vs Stock out costs

-----     Inventory vs spoilage and material handling cost .


The purpose of warehousing is to arrange placement of products , provide storage facility , consolidate them with other and similar products , divide them into smaller quantities and to build up a required assortment of products . The necessities of providing warehousing are ;

-----     To get continuous and uninterrupted supply in the market area .

-----     To achieve full benefit of the economies in scale in transportation and production .

-----     To satisfy time and place utility .

-----     To meet the demand fluctuations of customer .

-----     To tide over variations in supply .

Tuesday, 21 January 2014

Lien and Detention


Right to lien and detention :-

a)   Constituent shall pay the bills presented by the Forwarder within  15 days of their presentation , failing which penal interest at the provided rate of interest ( may be 3% or near by ) above Bank's lending rate of interest shall become due to payable .

b)    The forwarder has a right to lean and a right to detention over the goods or other securities and effects lying within his power of disposal in respect of any amount whether already due for payment or not which  the forwarder is entitle to receive in respect of service to the customer . In exercise of the lien under the clause , the forwarder shall be entitled to dispose of the goods , either by public or private sales upon which lien is exercised , to recover this dues , provided that he gives a written notice of at least 7 days to the customer of his intention to do so . The forwarder is entitled to recover all the balance amount from the customer after recovery of the dues by the sale of the goods under this clause and the right exercised by forwarder under this clause shall not be deemed to have been  waiver of his right to take further legal steps to recover the dues .

Time Limit :-

Claims against the forwarder shall be timed barred within a period of one year commencing from the day of delivery of the goods to the consignee named in the contract or , if no delivery has taken place , from the data of the conclusion of the forwarding contract .

Jurisdiction :- 

Unless expressly agree to the contrary , claims against the forwarder shall be decided at the principal place of his business . 

Monday, 20 January 2014

Liability of Freight Forwarder

It is very important to know about the liabilities of the freight forwarder . It is necessary for Logistics Professionals and also for the Trades .

Followings are the important liabilities of freight forwarder :-

a)   The forwarder is liable only for his own faults attributable to himself or his employees .

b)   Th forwarder shall not b liable for act or omissions of third party such as re-forwarder , carrier  etc. provided that he has shown due diligence in the choice of such third parties . It can be proved that he has not done so , his liabilities shall not exceed that of any third party held liable , whom he has contracted with .

c)   The forwarder shall not be liable to the customer for consequential loss or loss of market howsover caused .

d)   The liability of the forwarder for loss of or damage will be fixed , as per the contract with consignor or consignee . Actually this part is an understanding between the parties and the freight forwarder and also covering the Internationale or  National rule .

e)   The forwarder may arrange / provide transport for customer and in such event the forwarder shall not be held responsible as a carrier or assume the liability of a carrier .

f)   In the event of the liability of the forwarder being sought to be varied , the variation shall only be effected by a written document signed by the forwarder .

Friday, 17 January 2014

Stowage and Restrain


 How to Restrain certain types of Cargo :-

Top heavy articles should be wedged , shored and lashed to prevent topping .

Heavy weight should be secured to stout ring - bolts (sited in the container floor and side walls ) and be shored with timber . They should be chained or wired with bottle screws .

Resilient loads can caused lashings to slacken  - this may sometimes be overcome by introducing elasticity may be rubber rope into lashing pattern .

No securing of pallets is necessary  if the distance between pallets and container wall is 4'' (100mm) or less . Pallets must not be allowed any longitudinal movement . If it is necessary to secure them , stow the pallets against the container walls and wadge wood block between the pallets . It may be necessary to insert sheets of board between the pallet loads to protect them against chafing and prevent bags , cartons  , etc . interweaving and jamming the stowage .

Stowage Precautions :- 

In the majority of cases , there is space left between the face of the cargo and container doors . It is important that the cargo does not collapse into th space . It can be prevented in a variety of ways , such as :

1)  Using suitable positioned lashing points with wire , rope , strapping , etc. woven across .

2)  Inserting a simple wooden gate for the wider gaps and heaver cargo .

3) Providing filler peaces for narrower gaps and lighter cargoes like cartoons of biscuits . 

Tuesday, 14 January 2014

Restrain the Cargo


It is always necessary to restrain the cargo for one or more of the following reasons :-

-----  To prevent collapse the stow while packing , unpacking or during transit

-----  To stop any movement during transit of pat loads or of single heavy items  , the heavier the item the more damage it will do if allowed to move .

-----  To prevent the face of the stow collapsing and learning against the container doors to fall out when the doors are opened at the final destination or for customs inspection .

Methods of Securing Cargo :-

The more common methods of securing cargo are ;

Shoring  :-     bars , struts and spars located in the cargo  voids to keep the cargo press against the walls or other cargo .

Lashing  :-     ropes , wires , chains , strapping or netting secure to proper anchoring points and tensioned against the cargo .

Wedging :-    Wooden distance pieces , pads of synthetic materials , inflatable dunnage to fill voids in the cargo and keep in immobile against the container walls .

Locking  :-    Cargo built up to give a three dimensional brick well effect  .

Monday, 13 January 2014



Moisture in the stored commodities is one of the important factors causing qualitative and quantitative deterioration during storage . Food grains which are dried plants material tend to absorb moisture from all sources including atmospheric air , godown floor , godown walls etc . other stored commodities such as jute , cotton etc. also absorb moisture from the floor . Higher the moisture content in the stored commodities , faster is the deterioration due to insect and microbial activities and , therefore lesser is the storability .

 The stored commodities also loose weight due to driage resulting in quantity loss . Permissible limits of such driage loss in different commodities depending upon the period of storage are provided in the respective Local Warehouse Rules . Moisture content of the stocks at the time of receipt and delivery is , therefore recorded using appropriate type of moisture meter and duly authenticated by depositor .

In order to prevent absorption of floor moisture by bottom layer bags/packages , the commodities are staked on appropriate dunnage ,

Following dunnage materials are commonly used at the warehouse :-

a)   Wooden crates or HDPE crates of size   5'*2'  or other appropriate size .

b)   Bamboo mats prepared out of closely woven bamboo strips

c)   Polythene films of atleast   100 micron  thickness .

While wooden crate is the most ideal dunnage . However , in the view of scarcity of good quality wood due to restriction in deforestation and consequent high cost , stocks at the warehouse are also stacked by providing two layers of bamboo mats with sandwiched layer of polythene film .

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