Showing posts with label commerce. Show all posts
Showing posts with label commerce. Show all posts

Monday, 18 June 2018

Careers in Logistics

A webinar was organized by us on YouTube Live. In this webinar we will discuss about different careers in the field of Logistics and also discuss about how it is easy to become an independent logistics professionals. How the short skill development courses of Join Study will help you.
You already know that people are always trying to join IT, Software and other Engineering sectors they also thinking for Product and marketing Management fields. But what are the great chances for career growth in Logistics sector is discussed here in this webinar. Here is a complete video of this webinar for our blog readers and public.

Monday, 20 November 2017

The Growing Importance Of Dry Ports.

The growing importance of dry ports (Inland Intermodal Terminals) in the economic transformation of landlocked nations as well as port countries is widely acknowledge. Dry ports are now becoming the hub of transshipment to inland destinations thereby promoting inter-regional trade and business. More importantly, dry ports are fast becoming the gateway to international markets in facilitating trade, economic growth and development.
In my previous post I have discuss about details of Dry Port (ICD). Hope you will understand properly. Now in this post here is some question for you to solve and check your knowledge. If you have any question then sure ask it on the comment box of this post.

Monday, 13 November 2017

Functions OF A Dry Port (ICD)

The functions and the concept of  Dry Ports are better understood by understanding the function of  a Sea Port. At Sea Port, the import cargo of the region is received by incoming ships, the ship is berthed and unloaded, the cargo is segregated for each consignee and stored awaiting customs clearance and delivery. Similarly the export cargoes from the region are aggregated, costumes and other formalities observed and completed and the goods are finally loaded on the appropriate outward bound vessels.  Other admin and customer facilities with proper transport activities are also done in Sea Port.
The Dry Ports perform similar functions. But they receive import cargoes and dispatch export cargoes from or to Sea Port by proper Unit Rail connected to Sea Port. All documentation is done at Dry Port and transport to and from the Sea Port is organised. You can say "A Dry Port is a port provide all the facilities of a sea port at the place far away from sea port."
You may understand the concept and activities of a Dry Port by this slide shows.


Sunday, 1 October 2017

Importance of Trade Volume for planning a Dry Port

Dry ports depends essentially on the external trade traffic of the countries in which they are setup.While planning a dry port, therefore the first consideration would be the trade volumes, both inwards and outwards means imports and exports both. once these are decided, detailed breakdown of import and export volumes in every terms would be most useful parameters to outline the necessary facilities that need to be provide in terms of terminal handling, storage and transport.the next step is that panning team have to determine the commodity and its volume that may move from the dry port. during the course of survey it was found that most governments of land-locked countries bring out annual statistics of external trade in terms of commodities and values.The common problem encounter is the paucity of current data regarding the every aspects of commodities trade which could help establish the requirements of transport, handling and storage at the dry port.

It was learnt that basic document used for these statistics is the custom.
declaration failed at the border or at the check point and this contained the
information on the weight of consignment. There is no other practical difficulties in compiling the
weight of commodities imported and exported.
As in all developing countries, the pattern of trade in the land-locked countries consists
predominantly of exports of primary commodities and semi manufactured goods and import of
finished products.
The important fact to consider will be the separate requirements of commodities and their volumes
both for imports and exports that have to be catered for at the dry port. The facilities and their size
would have to be determined accordingly.

Saturday, 11 October 2014

Defense and Limits for Multimodal Transport Operator





Defense and Limits for MTO


-----     The defenses and the limits of the liabilities provided for in this Multimodal transport Document shall apply in action against the Multimodal Transport Operator in respect of loss resulting from loss of or damage to goods; delay in delivery and any consequential loss or damage arising from such delay. 

-----     If any action in respect of loss resulting from loss of, or damage to, the goods or from delay in delivery is brought against the servant or agent of the Multimodal Transport Operator, if such servant or agent proves that the acted within the scope of his employment, or against any other person whose service he makes use for the performance of the Multimodal Transport Contract, if such other person proves that he acted within the performance of the contract, the servant or agent or such other person shall be entitled avail himself of the defenses and limits of liability which the Multimodal Transport Operator is entitled to invoke under this Multimodal Transport Document.

-----     Except as provided for liability of delay, as mentioned below, the aggregate of the amount recoverable from the Multimodal Transport Operator and from a servant or agent or any other person of whose service he makes use of for this performance of the Multimodal Transport Contract shall not exceed the limits of liability provided for in this Multimodal Transport Document.    

Saturday, 20 September 2014

Evidentiary Effect of the Multimodal Transport Documents



Evidentiary Effect of the Multimodal Transport Documents :-

1)  The Multimodal Transport Document shall be prima facia evidence of the taking in charge by the Multimodal Transport Operator of goods as described therein.

2)   Proof of contrary by the Multimodal Transport Operator shall not be admissible if the Multimodal Transport Document issued in negotiable form and has been transferred to a third party, including a consignee, who has acted in good faith in reliance on the description of goods there in.

Negotiability and Title of the Goods :-

  By accepting the Multimodal Transport Document the consignor and his transferees agree with the Multimodal Transport Operator that, unless it is marked "non- negotiable" it shall constitute title to the goods and the holder, by endorsement of this Multimodal Transport Document, shall be entitled to  receiver to transfer the goods mentioned in this Multimodal Transport Document.



Tuesday, 22 July 2014

Size of Container Yard



It will depend upon the optimum number of containers to be store at any given time which is a function of the dwell time (DT) of containers which are separate for imports, exports and empty containers. Normally seven days for import, three days for export and 15 days for empties is considered pragmetic.

Imports = 6400 TEUs/annum or 18 per day.
At 7 days DT for each, the average inventory will be :
   18*7=126 TEUs
exports = 1600 TEU/annum or 5 TUs/day
at 3 days DT for each, average inventory will be
   5*3=15 TEUs
empties = 4800 TEUs/annum or 14 TEUs/day
at 15 days DT, average inventory will be :
   14*15 or 210 TEUs
Daily total average inventory = 126+15+210=351

The total storage capacity of CY should in the case be 351 of which the ground slot will be a fraction of the stake height. While equipment available may be capable to stake five high, full capacity can not be used for operating consideration as containers have to be shuffled for access and if the stake is full, shuffling and access become very difficult. Average staking height should therefore, be taken at 2.5. At this, the reqirement of ground slot will be
    351/2.5=140 .



Tuesday, 15 April 2014

Systems of Customs Security Arrangements





Customs Security is usually composed of two elements :- 

-----  A requirement for a financial guarantee to be established in the transit country by the party responsible for the transit operation to meet possible claims by the Customs, coupled with

-----  Physical measures taken by the Customs to verify that the goods are eventually re-exported.

Under the TIR guarantee system, each contracting party designated a national guaranteeing assosiation, which undertakes to act as a guarantor for all TIR carnets used for transit on the territory of the country,

Regardless of whether the carnets have been issued by the association itself or by association of other countries which are parties to the TIR Convention.

All these associations form a chain in which members are linked to each other through an International Organization, which is the International Road Transport Union (IRU).

Reference to Customs Security Arrangements in the MT Convention was limited to the following .

-----  A financial guarantee, if required, should be provided to the satisfaction of Customs authorities under regulations in force in the transit country and under International Conventions.

-----  The guarantee should cover import/export duties and taxes chargeable, and in countries where they are covered by guarantees, any penalties due, and

-----  The system of guarantees should be simple, efficient and inexpensive. 




Monday, 14 April 2014

Trade Logistics




Trade Logistics is a chain of series of links and interfaces with potential for value addition. The difference between the revenue earned by a business enterprise and the cost of bought-in materials, services and components, represent the value which a firm adds by the process of production. The value added concept is also important in that it helps in measuring productivity and profitability of an enterprise, its impact on the national economy and keeping in focus the sources of comparative advantage like logistics, marketing, sales and service.

Through optimization which is the essential function of logistics, many nations like new big economic nation India and China, also developed nation like USA and western European nations and Japan have benefited by :-

-----  Selling service rather than remaining content with the price of exporting.

-----  Simplifying documentation, customs clearance and payment formalities.

-----  Offering varied choice of delivery terms.

-----  Increase in the size of export orders.

-----  Harnessing professionals knowledge and expertise to exercising model options, cost and time trade offs.

-----  Proactive rather than reactive approach to international trade logistics.

Logistics plays a significant  role in the developed economies with its importance growing pari pasu with the increase in the share of services as compared to manufacturing .



Thursday, 10 April 2014

Period of Responsibility of Carrier




Period of Responsibility for  Liability of Carrier :-

1)  The responsibility of the carrier for the  goods under many convention covers the period during which the career is in charge of the goods at the port of loading, during the carriage and at the port of discharge.

2)  For the purpose of  this article the carrier is deemed to be in charge of the goods.

a)  from the time has taken over the goods from

-----  the shipper or a person acting on his behalf

-----  an authority or other third party to whom, pursuant to law or regulations applicable at the port of loading, the goods must be handed over the shipment.

b)  Until the time has delivered the goods.

-----  by handing over the goods to consignee.

-----  in case where the consignee does not receive the goods from the career by placing them at the disposal of the consignee in accordance with the contract or with the law or with the usage of the particular trade applicable at the port of discharge.

-----  bu handing over the goods to an authority of other third party to whom, pursuant to law or regulations applicable at the port of discharge, the goods must be handed over.

In this article reference to the carrier or to the consignee means in addition to the carrier or consignee the servants or agents respectively of the carrier or the consignee.



Monday, 7 April 2014

Forecasts for Containerisable and Breakbulk Traffic




Traffic Forecasts :-

In traffic forecasting two methods can be resorted to, which as may appear are not mutually exclusive.
These are :-

-----  trend analysis and extrapolation.

-----  trade projections based on economy of the country and are done on the basis of actual economics parameters.

Both methods applied mechanically and in isolation can lead to very unrealistic figures. Normally trade forecasting will start with the trade statistics of the previous years preferably in both value and volume terms.

Port statistics may be helpful in other cases but in the context of LLCs where the serving ocean ports may not have the country-wise exports, this method will not help to allow analysis of trend, a run of figures is needed and the period should be preferably at least as long as the forecasting period.  

The economists approach in trade forecasting would tend to categorize commodities according to their economic properties .

A clear cut distinction has to be made between exports and imports. The export would be divided into agricultural and industrial products, each group being further broken down into main commodities.

Similarly , imports can also be divided according to their economic properties .
Such as :-

-----  Consumer goods.

-----  Intermediate products.

-----  Capital goods.

However as already mentioned, trend extrapolation used for long term forecasting can be extremely misleading. Therefore after acquiring a general idea of growth trends, economic parameters may be introduced to formulate more realistic relationship would be quite different for imports and exports.


 

Tuesday, 25 March 2014

Lay Time in Shipping




In a voyage charter the time spent by the vessel at the port is, of particular importance to the owner because the freight is fixed only with reference to the quality of cargo carried and any undue detention during which he continues to incur fixed overhead charges such as depreciation, insurance, interest on invested capital, wages etc. would reduce his calculated profit.

An important clause in the charter party is therefore the one stipulating the maximum time to be allowed for the cargo loading and discharging operations, that is Lay Time.

The provisions of the charter party usually state that lay time is to commence at a specific time after notice of readiness has been given.

The cancelling date is applicable to the loading port only and is the absolute last day under the terms of the charter party on which the charterer is obliged to make use of the vessel.

Lay Time may be expressed as the maximum number of days allowed for loading and discharge or as loading/discharge rate like an example 1500 tons/200 tons per day.

Demurrage is the compensation to which the owner is entitled for detention of a vessel beyond the agreed lay time.

The voyage charter party usually provides for payment of dispatch money to the charterer for the time that is thus saved. In other words, dispatch money is opposite to demurrage and is the compensation payable to the charterer for completing loading and discharging faster than stipulated under the charter party.



Saturday, 15 March 2014

Decision Areas In Warehousing

 


There are two important decisions in Warehousing. Which are as follows :-

A)  Warehousing Location : The following factors influence the location of a warehouse:-

------  Transport facilities available.

------  Transportation cost of serving the market area.

------  Transportation cost of supply to the warehouse.

-----  Product price, customers' expected level of service and the resulting inventory carrying costs.

-----  Exise duties and other taxes assesed in the area.

-----  Labour supply and costs.

-----  Land and construction cost.

-----  Availability of power, water and communication.

-----  Climatic conditions.

-----  Attitude of residents and government towards the establishment of the warehouse.

-----  Potential for future expansion.

-----  Location of warehouse of competitors.

B)  Own versus lease versus use Public Warehouse :-

A warehouse may be privatly used or publically used . If a company makes goods and these are stored exclusively in some warehouse, then such warehouse known as Private warehouse.

A private warehouse may an owned or leased one .

If a warehouse is used on the basis of some terms and conditions by many users, then that warehouse is known as Public warehouse.



Thursday, 13 March 2014

Paperless Trading




Paperless trading is done by Electronic Data Interchange (EDI). EDI is a very important Part of Modern Trade and Logistics.  Evolution of data elements that can be transmitted electronically to interchange trading information such as invoice etc. have been part of this development.

Advantage of Paperless Trading :-

------  EDI saves on clerical costs by avoiding re-entering of data. It allows timely and error free transaction information be passed from one computer to another.

-----  By improving information management and data exchange between organizations, EDI promotes introduction of new business strategies such as just in time manufacturing based on zero stock principle.

-----  Providing error free information to the right place at the right time; thus quicker response to orders, shortening of delivery cycle.

-----  Reducing stocks levels and thus increasing availability of working capital.

-----  Quicker and safer processing of invoice brings speedy payments with improving cash flow .

-----  EDI speeds up border control and other official interventions such as costumes clearance of goods .

-----  EDI through computer oriented controls, improves the efficiency of controlling authorities.

-----  Improves costumer service.

The main and very useful help from EDI is that it helps the uniform goods flow when goods are passing from border or carried in any other transit nation which is neither origin nor destination for that good. It simplifies all the customs processes and allow transit the goods without any disturbance. It also simplifies the documentary process, banking and payment solutions.



Monday, 10 March 2014

Traffic Flows

 


-----   Having determined the trade volumes , the immediate exercise would be estimate the traffic flows likely to be materialized at the dry port . This volume obviously would be a percentage of the total trade volumes and would be influenced by many factors having a direct or indirect bearing on such traffic .

-----   To begin with such commodities as crude oil , petroleum, oil and lubricants, dry bulk cargoes like minerals and ores, coal, cement, fertilizers and heavy structural including steel etc.  have to be discounted to the appropriate extent .

-----   The general principal to be followed should be to concentrate on containerisable commodities, and general cargo able to containerization .

-----   This fact is supported by ever increasing conversion of breakbulk general goods traffic into containerized transport and this being the future scenario, provisions of container handling facilities should suffice at the dry ports.

-----   After having obtained the volumes of containerisable commodities, these volumes can be converted into number of containers in terms of Twenty Foot Equivalent Units (TEU) with the help of a conversion table.Where volumes instead of weight are available-29 cubic meters may be taken as equavalant of one TEU.

-----   The traffic flows should then be established in terms of TEUs for export and Import both .



Friday, 7 March 2014

Multimodal Transport and Documentary Credit

 


-----   Science transport is an integral part of global trade , the documents issued by the Carrier while taking charge of the goods in a crucial document. The other documents include commercial invoice, packing list, certificate of origin, certificate of inspection etc.

-----   The Transport Document will depend on the mode of transport like sea, air , land and the agency issuing the document . The most commonly used Transport Document is called Bill of Lading with an endorsement "shipped on Board" signifying that the goods have been physically placed on board on the ship. In the case of Air Transport , the document is called Airway Bill issued by airlines or their authorized agents.

-----   Multimodal Transport implies transport by  two or more then two modes under a single document issued by MTO . This document has involved in response to advances in transport technology through containerization and emergence of non-vessel owning operators. Such operators have evolved their own document called CTD (combined transport document). Which is now widely accepted in developed countries.The person issuing the CTD takes responsibility as a principal of the safe conduct of transport of goods over different mode of transport from the place of receipt of goods to the place of delivery .

Sometimes instead of CTD, a through Bill of Lading may be issued by a shipping line covering the entire transport including transhipment at an intermediate port to another vessel . A CTD can be issued by any person acting on as an MTO . Who could be Shipping Lines, Freight Forwarder, Common Carriers, Terminal Operators or purely Commercial Enterprises .



Thursday, 6 March 2014

Implied Warranties in Marine Adventure

 Two container ships pass in San Francisco Bay


In order to make the underwriter liable under a contract of marine insurance or cargo insurance , there are certain preliminary essential conditions which must be complied with though not expressed in clear ords . These terms are implied warranties basically these are two :-

A)  -----  Implied warranties of seaworthiness :-
             
                It implies that the ship , by which the particular kind of cargo is transported , is fit to carry the particular cargo . For instance , if is frozen meat , then the refrigerating machinery, holds etc. must be in proper order . Actually for a proper cargo all supporting  machinery and others have to be in a good condition and seaworthy , but there are is not implied warranty that the goods are seaworthy .

b)  -----  Marin adventure in all respect to be lawful activity :-

              It implies that an insurance of unenforceable if it is respect to a marine adventure which has declared illegal according to the law of land where the contract was effected . 

              If any policy has been taken for in any of the cargoes forbidden to be exported from India , the insurance companies are at liberty to avoid the contract on the basis of breach of implied warranty of legality through the trading in the countries of Africa for these items may be legal . 



What Constitutes Material Circumstance

 Two container ships pass in San Francisco Bay


The term "Circumstance" includes any communication made or information received by the assured . Every circumstance is deemed to be material which would influence the judgment of an insurer in determining the risk of fixing the premium . The assured is under obligation to tell every material fact and the change in circumstance , if any , to the insurer . Further if the assured is asked a question whether a material fact or not , by the underwriter , he must answered it truly otherwise it may vitiate the policy . However , the following circumstances need not be disclosed :-

a)  -----  Any circumstance which diminishes the risk .

b)  -----  Any circumstance as to which information has been waived of by the insurer while taking the risk.

c)  -----  Any circumstance which is known or presumed to be known to the insurer in ordinary course of the business ;
    Matters presumed to be known by underwriter are the matters falling in the category of trade usages such as routes being adopted by the ship , methods of loading , discharge, stowage, packing of cargo and general nature of cargo .
    For instance the chemicals are not to be carried as less than container load cargo (LCL) with goods for human consumptions or edible quality . These need not be communicated .

d)  -----  Matters not affecting the risk .

e)  -----  Excessive valuation of cargo must be communicated to the underwriter but an insurance for an excessive sum under the unvalued policy would not be necessary  to be disclosed because in case of loss of the consignment the assured would be entitled to recover only the true value of goods, i.e. the insurable value.



Tuesday, 4 March 2014

Customs Convention on Container






This Convention is administered by the Customs Co-operation Councils .

Its purpose is to facilitate the use of containers in international traffic . The contracting parties grant free temporary admission to containers subjected to re-exportation when they are ;

-----   Imported loaded to be re-exported empty or loaded .

-----   Imported empty to be re-exported loaded .

Containers have to be approved in compliance with technical conditions concerning construction and closing systems, including ;

-----   External marking with owner's name and address , tare and identification;

-----   They have to be capable to simple the effective sealing;

-----   It must not be possible to introduce or remove any goods without breaking the seal or leaving trace of tampering .

-----   There must be no space in which goods might be hidden;

-----   They must be readily accessible for Customs inspection; a certificate of approval must be displayed on the outside .

-----   Prescribed structural requirements;

-----   Requirements relating to the closing system .

These are the main points regarding this .


Advantages of TIR to Customs





The advantages for customs authorities of States Contracting Parties to the TIR Convention are considerable.

In particular the following may be mentioned .

-----   The physical inspection of the load and transit country frontiers , expensive in terms of labor and facilities , can be replaced by inspection confined merely to the external condition of the container or the means of transport and the sales  affixed by competent authorities in the country of departure ;

-----   It is no longer necessary to organize a national guaranteeing system since an International guaranteeing system of lawful amount per TIR carnet and per country is provided by the TIR system .

-----   It eliminates the need for an expensive national system of documentary control .

Commercial Advantages :-

The advantages to commerce and to transport interests are equally clear . Goods may travel across national frontiers with a minimum of interference by Customs . By reducing delay in transit , it enables significant economics to be made in transport costs. Moreover the revised provision of the TIR convention enable this advantages to be widely applied to the transport of goods in containers . Finally in reducing the impediments to international traffic by Road Customs Control , it enables exporters to select more easily the form of transport most suitable to their needs .



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