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Applicability of UNCTAD/ICC Rules

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 Applicability for Multimodal Transport Document :-  These rules apply when they are incorporated, however this is made, in writing, orally or otherwise, into a contract of carriage by reference to the “UNCTAD/ICC Rules for Multimodal Transport Document” , irrespective of whether there is a Unimodal or a Multimodal Transport Contract involving one or several modes of transport or whether a document has been issued or not. Whenever such a reference is made, the parties agree that these rules shall supersede any additional terms of the Multimodal Transport Contract which are in conflict with these rules, expect insofar as they increased the responsibility or obligations of the Multimodal Transport Operator. Multimodal Transport Contract means a single contract for the carriage of goods by at least two different modes of transport and Multimodal Transport Operator means the person who concludes a Multimodal Transport Contract and assumes responsibility for the perf

Liability of Freight Forwarder

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It is very important to know about the liabilities of the freight forwarder . It is necessary for Logistics Professionals and also for the Trades . Followings are the important liabilities of freight forwarder :- a)   The forwarder is liable only for his own faults attributable to himself or his employees . b)   Th forwarder shall not b liable for act or omissions of third party such as re-forwarder , carrier  etc. provided that he has shown due diligence in the choice of such third parties . It can be proved that he has not done so , his liabilities shall not exceed that of any third party held liable , whom he has contracted with . c)   The forwarder shall not be liable to the customer for consequential loss or loss of market howsover caused . d)   The liability of the forwarder for loss of or damage will be fixed , as per the contract with consignor or consignee . Actually this part is an understanding between the parties and the freight forwarder and also coverin

Stowage and Restrain

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   How to Restrain certain types of Cargo :- Top heavy articles should be wedged , shored and lashed to prevent topping . Heavy weight should be secured to stout ring - bolts (sited in the container floor and side walls ) and be shored with timber . They should be chained or wired with bottle screws . Resilient loads can caused lashings to slacken  - this may sometimes be overcome by introducing elasticity may be rubber rope into lashing pattern . No securing of pallets is necessary  if the distance between pallets and container wall is 4'' (100mm) or less . Pallets must not be allowed any longitudinal movement . If it is necessary to secure them , stow the pallets against the container walls and wadge wood block between the pallets . It may be necessary to insert sheets of board between the pallet loads to protect them against chafing and prevent bags , cartons  , etc . interweaving and jamming the stowage . Stowage Precautions :-  In the majority of cases , th

Restrain the Cargo

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  It is always necessary to restrain the cargo for one or more of the following reasons :- -----  To prevent collapse the stow while packing , unpacking or during transit -----  To stop any movement during transit of pat loads or of single heavy items  , the heavier the item the more damage it will do if allowed to move . -----  To prevent the face of the stow collapsing and learning against the container doors to fall out when the doors are opened at the final destination or for customs inspection . Methods of Securing Cargo :- The more common methods of securing cargo are ; Shoring  :-     bars , struts and spars located in the cargo  voids to keep the cargo press against the walls or other cargo . Lashing  :-      ropes , wires , chains , strapping or netting secure to proper anchoring points and tensioned against the cargo . Wedging :-     Wooden distance pieces , pads of synthetic materials , inflatable dunnage to fill voids in the cargo and keep in immobile a

Special Provisions For Dangerous Goods

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  -----  Where the consignor hands over the prescribed dangerous goods to a multimodal transport operator or any person acting on behalf of such operator , the consignor shall inform him to the nature of dangerous goods and if necessary , the precautions to be taken while transporting such goods . -----  Where the consignor fails to inform the multimodal transport operator or the other person acting on behalf of such operator of the nature of the dangerous goods and such operator or person does not otherwise have knowledge of the dangerous goods .      a)  The consignor shall be liable to the multimodal transport operator or the other person acting on behalf of such operator for all loss resulting from the multimodal transportation of such goods ; and      b)  The goods may at any time be unloaded , destroyed or rendered innocuous , as the circumstances may require , without payment of compensation . Right to multimodal transport operator to have lien on goods and documents

Logistics Decisions

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  An understanding of the logistics chain is useful to appreciate the decision areas in logistics Value Added Chain :- Vendor --> Raw material movement --> Production point --> Finished --> Products --> Warehouses --> Wholesaler --> Retailer --> Customer . We know that the management of logistics is a complex process which involves a whole range of physical , managerial and informational issues related to the following decision areas . ----- Product Design ----- Plant Location ----- Production Structure ----- Distribution / Dealer Network Design ----- Location of Warehouses ----- Allocation Decisions ----- Production Planning ----- Inventory Management - Stocking Level ----- Transportation - Mode  Choice , Shipment Size , Routing Decisions and Transport Contracting ----- Packaging ----- Materials Handling ----- Oder Processing ----- Warehouse Operations 

Infrastructure for MTOs

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  The need for upgrading transport infrastructure and adapting it to meet the requirements of multimodal transport is governed by National Transport Policies which should ensure optimum use of existing infrastructure and optimum investment in new infrastructure .It would be advisable fo policy makers to examine every thing ; -----   rationality of investment decisions ;  investment decision should be based on cost benefits analysis not only in respect of new investments but also in respect of investments for upgrading existing infrastructure . -----   relationship of costs to the charges payable by users ;   To the extent possible , the charge payable by users should reflect the actual cost of infrastructure including interest on capital invested and cost of maintenance and repairs . -----   level and structure of tariffs ;   This should take into account the peculiarities of the transport mode concerned and should be so designed as to direct traffic  ( primarily contai

International Co-ordination

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  The very nature of multimodal transport required International Co-ordination at three levels . -- With neighboring countries on cross border procedures and in infrastructure developments . -- With trading partners on trade  , banking and insurance procedures . -- With the International community on the development of worldwide standards in  such areas as :- ----------- documentation ----------- UN/EDIFACT rules ----------- Inco Terms ----------- Harmonize system for commodity classification . Therefore there is room to compliment the activities of  the National Multimodal Transport Committee with regional initiatives . In particular there is a need ; ----- To monitor international efforts to standardize procedures , documentation , definitions , classifications etc . pertaining to international trade and transport to formulate a regional position and or represent member countries' interests at such fora . ----- To insure region wide standards for documenta