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Systems of Customs Security Arrangements

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Customs Security is usually composed of two elements :- 

-----  A requirement for a financial guarantee to be established in the transit country by the party responsible for the transit operation to meet possible claims by the Customs, coupled with

-----  Physical measures taken by the Customs to verify that the goods are eventually re-exported.

Under the TIR guarantee system, each contracting party designated a national guaranteeing assosiation, which undertakes to act as a guarantor for all TIR carnets used for transit on the territory of the country,

Regardless of whether the carnets have been issued by the association itself or by association of other countries which are parties to the TIR Convention.

All these associations form a chain in which members are linked to each other through an International Organization, which is the International Road Transport Union (IRU).

Reference to Customs Security Arrangements in the MT Convention was limited to the following .

-----  A financi…

Trade Logistics

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Trade Logistics is a chain of series of links and interfaces with potential for value addition. The difference between the revenue earned by a business enterprise and the cost of bought-in materials, services and components, represent the value which a firm adds by the process of production. The value added concept is also important in that it helps in measuring productivity and profitability of an enterprise, its impact on the national economy and keeping in focus the sources of comparative advantage like logistics, marketing, sales and service.

Through optimization which is the essential function of logistics, many nations like new big economic nation India and China, also developed nation like USA and western European nations and Japan have benefited by :-

-----  Selling service rather than remaining content with the price of exporting.

-----  Simplifying documentation, customs clearance and payment formalities.

-----  Offering varied choice of delivery terms.

-----  Increase in t…

Period of Responsibility of Carrier

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Period of Responsibility for  Liability of Carrier :-

1)  The responsibility of the carrier for the  goods under many convention covers the period during which the career is in charge of the goods at the port of loading, during the carriage and at the port of discharge.

2)  For the purpose of  this article the carrier is deemed to be in charge of the goods.

a)  from the time has taken over the goods from

-----  the shipper or a person acting on his behalf

-----  an authority or other third party to whom, pursuant to law or regulations applicable at the port of loading, the goods must be handed over the shipment.

b)  Until the time has delivered the goods.

-----  by handing over the goods to consignee.

-----  in case where the consignee does not receive the goods from the career by placing them at the disposal of the consignee in accordance with the contract or with the law or with the usage of the particular trade applicable at the port of discharge.

-----  bu handing over the goods t…

Forecasts for Containerisable and Breakbulk Traffic

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Traffic Forecasts :-

In traffic forecasting two methods can be resorted to, which as may appear are not mutually exclusive.
These are :-

-----  trend analysis and extrapolation.

-----  trade projections based on economy of the country and are done on the basis of actual economics parameters.

Both methods applied mechanically and in isolation can lead to very unrealistic figures. Normally trade forecasting will start with the trade statistics of the previous years preferably in both value and volume terms.

Port statistics may be helpful in other cases but in the context of LLCs where the serving ocean ports may not have the country-wise exports, this method will not help to allow analysis of trend, a run of figures is needed and the period should be preferably at least as long as the forecasting period.  

The economists approach in trade forecasting would tend to categorize commodities according to their economic properties .

A clear cut distinction has to be made between exports and …

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