Showing posts from September, 2013

Integreted Logistics Support

In general, ILS plans and directs the identification and development of logistics support and system requirements for military systems, with the goal of creating systems that last longer and require less support, thereby reducing costs and increasing return on investments. ILS therefore, addresses these aspects of supportability not only during acquisition, but also throughout the operational life cycle of the system. The impact of ILS is often measured in terms of metrics such as reliability, availability, maintainability and testability (RAMT), and sometimes System Safety (RAMS). ILS is the integrated planning and action of a number of disciplines in concert with one another to assure system availability. The planning of each element of ILS is ideally developed in coordination with the system engineering effort and with each other. Tradeoffs may be required between elements in order to acquire a system that is: affordable (lowest life cycle cost), operable, supportable

Container Terminal and Container Crane

A container terminal is a facility where cargo containers are transshipped between different transport vehicles, for onward transportation. The transshipment may be between container ships and land vehicles, for example trains or trucks, in which case the terminal is described as a maritime container terminal . Alternatively the transshipment may be between land vehicles, typically between train and truck, in which case the terminal is described as an inland container terminal . Maritime container terminals tend to be part of a larger port, and the biggest maritime container terminals can be found situated around major harbours. Inland container terminals tend to be located in or near major cities, with good rail connections to maritime container terminals. Both maritime and inland container terminals usually provide storage facilities for both loaded and empty containers. Loaded containers are stored for relatively short periods, whilst waiting for onward transportation,

Some Discussion about Container Ship

Largest ships Ten largest container ship classes, listed by TEU capacity Built Name Class size Maximum TEU 2013 Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller  ? 18,270 2012 CMA CGM Marco Polo 8 16,020 2006 Emma Mærsk 8 15,200–15,550 2009 MSC Danit 7 14,000 2009 MSC Beatrice 7 14,000 2010 MSC Fabiola 7 12,600 2008 CMA CGM Thalassa 2 10,960 2005 Gudrun Mærsk 6 10,150 2002 Clementine Maersk 7 9,600 2006 COSCO Guangzhou 5 9,500 2006 CMA CGM Medea 4 9,415 2003 Axel Mærsk 6 9,310 Economies of scale have dictated an upward trend in sizes of container ships in order to reduce expense. However, there are certain limitations to the size of container ships. Primarily, these are the availability of sufficiently large main engines and the availability of a sufficient number of ports and terminals prepared and equipped to handle ultra-large container ships. Furthermore, the permissible maximum ship dimensions in some of

Procurement in Logistics Management

Procurement is the acquisition of goods, services or works from an external source. It is favourable that the goods, services or works are appropriate and that they are procured at the best possible cost to meet the needs of the purchaser in terms of quality and quantity, time, and location. Corporations and public bodies often define processes intended to promote fair and open competition for their business while minimizing exposure to fraud and collusion Topics Procurement vs acquisition The US Defense Acquisition University (DAU) defines procurement as the act of buying goods and services for the government. DAU defines acquisition as the conceptualization, initiation, design, development, test, contracting, production, deployment, Logistics Support (LS), modification, and disposal of weapons and other systems, supplies, or services (including construction) to satisfy Department of Defense needs, intended for use in or in support of military missions. Acquisition

Containerization and its Issue .

There are five common standard lengths, 20-ft (6.1 m), 40-ft (12.2 m), 45-ft (13.7 m), 48-ft (14.6 m), and 53-ft (16.2 m). United States domestic standard containers are generally 48 ft (15 m) and 53-ft (rail and truck). Container capacity is often expressed in twenty-foot equivalent units ( TEU , or sometimes teu ). An equivalent unit is a measure of containerized cargo capacity equal to one standard 20 ft (length) × 8 ft (width) container. As this is an approximate measure, the height of the box is not considered, for instance the 9 ft 6 in (2.9 m) High cube and the 4-ft 3-in (1.3 m) half height 20 ft (6.1 m) containers are also called one TEU. The maximum gross mass for a 20 ft (6.1 m) dry cargo container is 24,000 kg, and for a 40-ft (including the 2.87 m (9 ft 6 in) high cube container), it is 30,480 kg. Allowing for the tare mass of the container, the maximum payload mass is therefore reduced to approximately 22,000 kg for 20 ft (6.1 m), and 27,000 kg for 40 ft

Inflation and its Adjustment .

We see that due to this Difficult Rescission Period , the value of money of many countries are decreases , But can we thin that How to protect the value of money ? and How to adjust this Inflation ? In economics, a nominal value is an economic value expressed in monetary terms (that is, in units of a currency). By contrast, a real value is a value that has been adjusted from a nominal value to remove the effects of general price level price changes over time. For example, changes in the nominal value of some commodity bundle over time can happen because of a change in the quantities in the bundle or their associated prices, whereas changes in real values reflect only changes in quantities. Real values are a measure of purchasing power net of any price changes over time. For example, nominal income is often restated as real income, thus removing that part of income changes that merely reflect inflation (a general increase in prices). Similarly, for aggregate measures of ou

Role of Market Access in Trade and Development

The issue of market access to high-income countries is a thorny but crucial one. The issues fall into three main groups: first, those relating to deliberately imposed barriers to trade, such as tariffs, quotas, and tariff escalation. Second, barriers to trade resulting from domestic and external producer support, primarily in the form of subsidies, but also including, for example, export credits. Third, those relating to indirect barriers to trade resulting from developing countries’ lack of institutional capacity to engage in the global economy and in multilateral institutions (e.g., the World Trade Organization) on equal terms. Barriers to trade High tariffs are imposed on agriculture: in high-income countries, the average tariff rate on agriculture is almost double the tariff for manufactures. And more than one third of the European Union's agricultural tariff lines, for instance, carry duties above 15% . Tariff peaks within agriculture occur most frequently o

Criticism About The Policies of Credit Rating Agency

In the wake of the financial crisis of 2007–2010, the Financial Crisis Inquiry Report called the "failures" of the Big Three rating agencies "essential cogs in the wheel of financial destruction." SEC Commissioner Kathleen Casey complained the ratings of the large rating agencies were "catastrophically misleading", yet the agencies "enjoyed their most profitable years ever during the past decade" while doing so. In their book on the crisis — All the Devils Are Here — journalists Bethany McLean, and Joe Nocera, criticized rating agencies for continuing "to slap their triple-A [ratings]s on subprime securities even as the underwriting deteriorated -- and as the housing boom turned into an outright bubble" in 2005, 2006, 2007. McLean and Nocera blamed the practice on "an erosion of standards, a willful suspension of skepticism, a hunger for big fees and market share, and an inability to stand up to" investment ban

Why Packaging is Necessary in Logistics Management .

Package design and development are often thought of as an integral part of the new product development process. Alternatively, development of a package (or component) can be a separate process, but must be linked closely with the product to be packaged. Package design starts with the identification of all the requirements: structural design, marketing, shelf life, quality assurance, logistics, legal, regulatory, graphic design, end-use, environmental, etc. The design criteria, performance (specified by package testing), completion time targets, resources, and cost constraints need to be established and agreed upon. Package design processes often employ rapid prototyping, computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing and document automation. An example of how package design is affected by other factors is the relationship to logistics. When the distribution system includes individual shipments by a small parcel carrier, the sortation, handling, and mixed stacking m

Trade Balance or Commercial Balance

What is Commercial Balance The commercial balance or net exports (sometimes symbolized as NX ), is the difference between the monetary value of exports and imports of output in an economy over a certain period. It is the relationship between a nation's imports and exports A positive balance is known as a trade surplus if it consists of exporting more than is imported; a negative balance is referred to as a trade deficit or, informally, a trade gap. The balance of trade is sometimes divided into a goods and a services balance. Policies of early modern Europe are grouped under the heading mercantilism. Early understanding of the imbalances of trade emerged from the practices and abuses of merchantilism in which colonial America's natural resources and cash crops were exported in exchange for finished goods from England, a factor leading to the American Revolution. An early statement appeared in Discourse of the Common Wealth of this Realm of England , 1549: "We